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Auto parts processing technology
- 2020-06-04-

Auto parts processing technology and summary:

1. Forging and processing of auto parts

In the automobile manufacturing process, the forging processing method is generally adopted. Forging methods are divided into free forging and model forging. Free forging is a processing method that places metal blanks on an anvil to receive impact or pressure to form (referred to as "ironing"). The blanks of automobile gears and shafts are processed by free forging. Model forging is a processing method in which a metal blank is placed in the cavity of a forging die and subjected to impact or pressure. Model forging is a bit like the process of dough being pressed into a biscuit shape in a mold. Compared with free forging, the shape of the workpiece manufactured by die forging is more complicated and the size is more accurate. Typical examples of automobile die forgings are: engine connecting rod and crankshaft, steering knuckle, automobile front axle, etc.

2. Casting and processing of auto parts

Casting is the consumption method of pouring the condensed metal into the cavity of the mold and cooling and solidifying to obtain the product. In the process of automobile parts processing and manufacturing, many parts are made of cast iron, accounting for about 10% of the total vehicle weight, such as cylinder block, transmission case, steering gear housing, rear axle housing, brake Drums, various brackets, etc. Sand castings are usually used for manufacturing cast iron parts. The raw material of sand mold is mainly made of sand and mixed with binder, water and so on. The sand material must have a certain bonding strength so that it can be shaped into the desired shape and can resist the scouring of high-temperature molten iron without collapsing. In order to mold a cavity in the sand mold that conforms to the shape of the casting, it is necessary to first make a model from wood, called a wood mold. The volume of hot metal will be reduced after cooling, so the size of the wooden mold needs to increase on the basis of the original size of the casting, and the appearance of the cutting process needs to be thickened accordingly.

3. Welding processing of auto parts

Welding in the process of automobile spare parts processing is a method of joining two pieces of metal together or by heating and pressing at the same time. We often have workers holding a mask in one hand and holding welding tongs and welding rods connected to wires in the other. The welding method is called manual arc welding. This is the application of high temperature condensed electrodes and weldments generated by arc discharge to join them. Manual arc welding is not widely used in automobile manufacturing. Spot welding is the most widely used in automobile body manufacturing. Spot welding is suitable for welding thin steel plates. During operation, 2 electrodes apply pressure to 2 steel plates to make them merge and merge at the same time (the diameter is {{{2}}— 6 Round shape) Heating current condenses to consolidate the joint. When 2 block body parts are welded, the edges are welded at every {{{2}} 0—100 point to make the 2 parts form a discontinuous multi-point connection . Welding the entire car body usually requires thousands of solder joints. The strength of the solder joints is very high, and each solder joint can accept the pulling force of {{{2}} kN, so that the steel plate is torn, and the solder joints cannot be separated.

4. Cold stamping of auto parts

Cold stamping or sheet metal stamping is a processing method that makes the metal sheet material be cut or formed by receiving pressure in the die. Daily necessities, such as aluminum pans, lunch boxes, washbasins, etc., are made by cold stamping. For example, to make a lunch box, you first need to cut a rectangular blank with 4 rounded corners (referred to as "blanking" in the industry), and then use a punch to press this blank into a concave mold to form (referred to in the industry "Deep drawing"). In the drawing process, the flat sheet becomes box-shaped, with 4 sides bent vertically upwards, and the data of 4 corners are piled up and wrinkles can be seen.

5. Cutting of automotive parts

Auto parts cutting processing is a method of cutting metal blanks layer by layer with a cutter; so that the workpiece can obtain the required shape, size and appearance roughness. Metal cutting includes two methods: fitter and mechanical processing. Fitter is a processing method in which workers stop cutting with hand tools. The operation is sensitive and convenient, and it is commonly used in assembly and repair. Mechanical processing is accomplished by means of machine tools, including: turning, planing, milling, drilling and grinding.

Sixth, auto parts heat treatment processing

The heat treatment in the process of auto parts processing is to reheat, keep heat or cool the solid steel to change its organizational structure to meet the requirements of the use of parts or process requirements. The heating temperature up and down, the length of holding time, and the speed of cooling speed can cause different structural changes of the steel. Blacksmiths immerse heated steel parts in water for rapid cooling (experts call it quenching), which can increase the hardness of steel parts. This is an example of heat treatment. The heat treatment process includes annealing, normalizing, quenching and tempering. Annealing is to heat the steel parts for a certain period of time, and then slowly cool them together with the furnace to obtain a finer and average structure and reduce the hardness to facilitate cutting. Normalizing is to heat the steel parts, take them out of the furnace after heat preservation, and then cool them in the air, which is suitable for stopping the refinement of low-carbon steel. Quenching is the heating of steel parts, and the rapid cooling in water or oil after heat preservation to improve the hardness. Tempering is usually the subsequent process of quenching, reheating the quenched steel parts, cooling after heat preservation, to stabilize the structure and eliminate brittleness. There are many auto parts, which not only need to keep the toughness of the heart, but also change the appearance of the structure to improve the hardness, it is necessary to use the appearance of high-frequency quenching or carburizing, cyanidation and other heat treatment processes.

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